Fundamental differences exist between males and females, encompassing anatomy, physiology, behaviour, and genetics. Such differences undoubtedly play a part in the well documented, yet poorly understood, disparity in disease susceptibility between the sexes. Although traditionally attributed to gonadal sex hormone effects, recent work has begun to shed more light on the contribution of genetics — and in particular the sex chromosomes — to these sexual dimorphisms. Here, we explore the accumulating evidence for a significant genetic component to mammalian sexual dimorphism through the paradigm of sex chromosome evolution. The differences between the extant X and Y chromosomes, at both a sequence and regulatory level, arose across million years. A functional result of these differences is cell autonomous sexual dimorphism.
Sex Chromosome Effects on Male–Female Differences in Mammals
Metrics details. The X chromosome and X-linked variants have largely been ignored in genome-wide and candidate association studies of infectious diseases due to the complexity of statistical analysis of the X chromosome. This exclusion is significant, since the X chromosome contains a high density of immune-related genes and regulatory elements that are extensively involved in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Many diseases present with a clear sex bias, and apart from the influence of sex hormones and socioeconomic and behavioural factors, the X chromosome, X-linked genes and X chromosome inactivation mechanisms contribute to this difference. Females are functional mosaics for X-linked genes due to X chromosome inactivation and this, combined with other X chromosome inactivation mechanisms such as genes that escape silencing and skewed inactivation, could contribute to an immunological advantage for females in many infections. In this review, we discuss the involvement of the X chromosome and X inactivation in immunity and address its role in sexual dimorphism of infectious diseases using tuberculosis susceptibility as an example, in which male sex bias is clear, yet not fully explored. The human sex chromosomes are genomic structures that distinguish males and females on the chromosomal level.
Xp duplications and sex reversal
The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes allosomes in many organisms, including mammals the other is the Y chromosome , and is found in both males and females. It is a part of the XY sex-determination system and X0 sex-determination system. The X chromosome was named for its unique properties by early researchers, which resulted in the naming of its counterpart Y chromosome, for the next letter in the alphabet, following its subsequent discovery. It was first noted that the X chromosome was special in by Hermann Henking in Leipzig.
The X chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes. Humans and most mammals have two sex chromosomes, the X and Y. Females have two X chromosomes in their cells, while males have X and Y chromosomes in their cells. Egg cells all contain an X chromosome, while sperm cells contain an X or a Y chromosome.